Glossary

A

Accessibility Features
The settings and tools available within the Student Secure Browser that provide support for students with disabilities, such as features that allow students to change the color contrast or font size of an online test.
Accommodations
Changes in procedures or materials that increase equitable access during the state assessments. Assessment accommodations generate valid assessment results for students who need them; they allow students to show what they know and can do.
Aggregation
Compilation of test results that provides average scores for a group of students, such as the students in a roster or school.
Alignment
The association between a question on a test and a content standard that identifies which skill or knowledge area that item is intended to measure.
Alternate Assessment
Testing instruments used to evaluate the performance of students who are unable to participate in regular state assessments even with accommodations. Washington's Access to Instruction and Measurement (WA- AIM) is the state's alternate assessment and is designed specifically for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities to participate in the state accountability system. Students must meet criteria to participate.
American Sign Language (ASL)
A complete, complex language that employs signs made by moving the hands combined with facial expressions and postures of the body. It is the primary language of many North Americans who are deaf and is one of several communication options used by people who are deaf or hard of hearing.
Appeal
A request to resolve a test impropriety (also known as a testing incident), which may interrupt the normal workflow of a test opportunity. Appeals are created and processed in TIDE.
Assessment
An online or paper test that measures how well a student demonstrates expected skills and/or knowledge.
Assessment Reporting Management System (ARMS)
Reporting system in EDS where District Assessment Coordinators fill out and submit forms and reports to the state.
Assessment Viewing Application (AVA)
An application that allows educators to view interim assessment questions.
Assessment Window
A designated time period each school year during which schools administer tests to students.
Assistive Technology
Any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of students with disabilities. For additional information visit https://www.specialedtechcenter.org/.

B

Braille
A system of raised dots that can be read with the fingers by people who are blind or who have low vision.

C

Cambium Assessment, Inc. (CAI)
An education company owned by Cambium Learning Group that develops innovative online assessment applications, such as TDS and TIDE.
Chrome OS
An operating system developed and distributed by Google, which is supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Chromebook
A laptop that runs Chrome OS.
Cluster
May refer to either:
-A group of related standards.
-A set of test questions and stimuli that assess student application of the knowledge and skills for one or more content standards.
Column Match
An item type that requires students to respond by matching together answer options that are listed in a set of columns.
Comma-Separated Values (CSV)
A type of file in which data are separated by commas. Some CAI systems allow users to create or modify data in bulk by uploading a CSV file.
Complexity
The level of cognitive demand expected for a student to correctly answer a test question.
Comprehensive Education Data and Research System (CEDARS)
A longitudinal data warehouse of educational data. Districts report data on courses, students, and teachers. Course data includes standardized state course codes. Student data includes demographics, enrollment information, schedules, grades, and program participation.
Computer Adaptive Test (CAT)
The computer-based test adjusts the difficulty of questions throughout the assessment based on the student’s response. If a student answers a question correctly, the next question will be harder; if a student answers incorrectly, the next question will be easier.
Condition Code
A code applied in place of a score on an assessment report when a student's response to a test question cannot be scored.
Construct
The set of concepts or skills that a test is intended to measure, such as reading ability or writing ability.
Constructed Response (CR)
A category of assessment items that require students to respond with a written/typed, pictorial, or graphic answer.
Content Area
Modified term name and category. Used to refer to the questions and stimuli within a test, the reading passage or other media type within a stimulus, and the prompt and response area within a question.
Content Standard
A set of broad statements that describe the skills and/or knowledge that students should attain at each grade level for a given content area.
Context Menu Tools
Tools in the Student Secure Browser that appear inside a menu and are available for individual items and stimuli.
Cut Score
A specific point on a test's score scale distinguishes between performance levels (Level 1, Level 2, Level 3, Level 4).

D

Device
Hardware that students may use in daily classroom instruction and take tests, including, but not limited to, desktop computers, laptops, netbooks, tablets, and assistive technologies for students requiring accommodations.
Disability
According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 2004, the term ”child with disability” means a child with an intellectual disability, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments or specific learning disabilities; and who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services. Children with disabilities who qualify for special education are also automatically protected by Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). However, all modifications that can be provided under Section 504 or the ADA can be provided under the IDEA if included in the student’s IEP.
Disaggregation
The process by which performance data for a group of students, such as a roster or school, is broken down into data for the various sub-groups or demographic groups within that larger student group.
District Administrator (DA)
User role representing the assessment administrator for an entire district.
District Assessment Coordinator (DAC)
User role representing the assessment coordinator for an entire district.
District Data Security Manager (DDSM)
Modified term name and acronym. User role representing the officer who manages data security for an entire district.
District Test Coordinator (DTC)
A system user role for District Assessment Coordinators (DACs) in Washington. DACs use the District Test Coordinator user role within CAI and Smarter Balanced systems.
Domain
A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
Drag-and-Drop
Modified term name. A question type that requires students to drag numbers or symbols into equations, expressions, and number lines.

E

Edit Task with Choice (ETC)
A question type that requires students to respond by selecting replacement text for a word or phrase from a drop-down list.
Educational Data System (EDS)
A centralized suite of web-based applications regarding educational data. It is used by state agencies, educational service districts (ESDs), school districts, schools, teachers, teaching certificate applicants, non-profit organizations, and businesses for a variety of purposes related to education in the State of Washington.
Eligibility Rules
Student attributes set up in the Test Information and Distribution Engine (TIDE) that determine which tests a student will be able to take in the Test Delivery System (TDS).
Embedded Support
Built-in tools and settings in the Student Secure Browser that provide assistance in using the application to students testing with the appropriate accommodations.
English Language Proficiency Assessment (ELP Assessment)
An ESSA-compliant instrument that is used in grades K–12 as a formal and standardized method of measuring language proficiency. The test results provide important information for classifying English learners and subsequently for monitoring their progress in acquiring English. The assessment measures the required competencies necessary for successful academic and social language usage in mainstream classrooms: speaking, listening, reading, writing, and comprehension. For additional information visit: English Language Proficiency Assessment OSPI.
English Learner (ELL)
The term “English learner (EL)” is used in place of the term “limited English proficient" as used in ESEA legislation under Title III. The Title III definition is, “the term ‘limited English proficient,’ when used with respect to an individual, means an individual who is aged three through 21; is enrolled or preparing to enroll in an elementary or secondary school; who was not born in the United States or whose native language is a language other than English; who is a Native American or Alaska Native, or a native resident of the outlying areas; and who comes from an environment where a language other than English has had a significant impact on the individual’s level of English language proficiency; or who is migratory, whose native language is a language other than English, and who comes from an environment where a language other than English is dominant; and whose difficulties in speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language may be sufficient to deny the individual the ability to meet the state’s proficient level of achievement on state assessments; the ability to successfully achieve in classrooms where the language of instruction is English; or the opportunity to participate fully in society”.
Equation/Numeric
A question type that allows students to respond with either number answers or to create equations through the use of a keypad below the response field with grade aligned math symbols
Errors of Measurement
Typically referred to as standard error of measurement. The amount or difference between a student’s actual score and the theoretical true score. The degree of inherent imprecision in student performance reports based on test content, administration, scoring, or examinee conditions.
Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)
Is the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act as of 2015.
Evidence-Based Selected Response (EBSR)
A multi-part question type that combines a selected-response question with a second selected-response question that asks students to show evidence from the text that supports the answer they provided to the first question.
Exemplar
An element included in an item's scoring rubric that provides an example of a student response that would earn a certain number of points.
Exempt Students
English learners (ELs) who first enrolled in a U.S. public school within the past 12 calendar months are not required to take the ELA state assessment. English learner students new to the U.S. are required to take the math and science state assessments.
Expiration Rules
The rules determine how long it takes a test opportunity to expire when a student starts it without completing it. Students cannot make any additional changes to a test opportunity once it expires.

F

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
A federal law that protects students' privacy regarding education records and also provides parents with rights regarding their children's education records.
Force Quit
An action that test administrators may need to take to close the Secure Browser in the event that it becomes unresponsive.
Frequency-Distribution Report (FDR)
A report that shows the frequency or count of a particular score or outcome by student group or demographic.

G

Global Tools
Tools in the Student Secure Browser that appear at the top of the screen and are available for an entire test segment.
Grace Period Extension (GPE)
An appeal created in TIDE that allows the student to review previously answered questions upon resuming a test after expiration of the pause timer.
Graphing Item
A question type where students can graph points, segments, rays, lines, and bar heights in graphs.
Grid Item (GI)
A category of item interactions in which students respond by interacting with an answer space, such as dragging a label into an empty box on an image or plotting points on a graph.
Guidelines on Tools Supports and Accommodations (GTSA)
Washington state specific document that identifies the accessibility features available to students during state testing, consistent with students’ use in classroom instructional settings.

H

Hand Scoring
The process of manually scoring certain test items. Performed by an assessment vendor for summative tests. Performed by educators for Smarter Balanced interim assessments in the Teacher Hand Scoring System (THSS).
Hot Spot
A question type that requires students to respond by clicking regions within a field or image, such as dot/line plots, equations, and countries on a map
Hot Text (HT)
A question type that requires students to click words or phrases in a section of text.

I

Individual Student Report (ISR)
A report that provides detailed information about an individual student's performance on an individual test.
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
A written statement of an educational program for a student eligible for special education that is developed, reviewed and revised by an IEP team in accordance with both the IDEA 2004 and Washington state law.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Is a United States federal law that governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to children with disabilities. It addresses the educational needs of qualifying students eligible to receive special education or 504 services, from ages three through 21, in cases that involve 14 specified categories of disability. In defining the purpose of special education, IDEA 2004 clarifies Congress’ intended outcome for each child with a disability: students must be provided a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) that prepares them for further education, employment, and independent living.
Invalidate Test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that eliminates the test opportunity, which results in the student having no further opportunities for the test.
iOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
iPadOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
Item
The questions or stems that initiate the responses students provide on tests. The items are the elements of the test that are scored.

J

Job Access with Speech (JAWS)
A screen reader software designed to help vision-impaired people use computer applications.

K

Keyboard Command
A key or combination of keys students can press in order to perform an action in the Student Secure Browser.

L

Limited English Proficiency (LEP)
A student whose home language is not English and who has difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language.
Linux
A family of free and open source operating systems, some of which are supported by CAI's Secure Browser.

M

Machine Scoring
Item scoring performed automatically by a computer.
Machine-Scored Constructed Response (MSCR)
A category of item types that require specific scoring logic for machine scoring.
Manner of Administration
Modified term name. A category assigned to an interim test, which is used to categorize the test for reporting purposes. Test reasons are assigned to tests in the TA Interface before starting the test session.
Matching Table Item
A question type that requires students to respond by matching an answer option to a condition like "Yes/No" or "True/False"
Mobile Secure Browser (MSB)
The mobile version of CAI's Secure Browser. It is used on iPads (iPadOS and iOS) and Chromebooks.
Multiple Choice (MC)
A question type that requires students to select a single answer from a list of options.
Multiple Select (MS)
A question type that requires students to select two or more answer options from a list of options.

N

Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics (Nemeth Code)
A Braille code for encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly.

O

Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI)
Primary agency charged with overseeing public K–12 education in Washington state.

P

Participation Rate
In student testing, the percentage of students within a particular group who took a test as compared to the total number of students in the group who could have taken the test.
Passages
The embedded text associated with ELA items that provide the context, information, and details that students use in responding to the various items. Not all ELA items require an associated passage.
Pause Rule
A rule in the Student Secure Browser restricts students from modifying their responses to previous items if they pause their test and return to it after exceeding a certain time limit.
Performance Task (PT)
A question type designed to provide students with an opportunity to demonstrate their ability to apply their knowledge and higher-order thinking skills to explore and analyze a complex, real-world scenario. Students will respond to a prompt related to the topic. It is a required portion of the test needed to generate a score.
Permissive Mode
Is a feature in TIDE that must be enabled to use non-embedded assistive technology. When the permissive mode is enabled, students can use accessibility software in addition to the secure browser. The permissive mode feature will allow other windows to float on top of the secure browser and essentially lower the security on the machine to allow the two pieces of software to inter-operate– for example, Speech-to-Text software.
Personally Identifying Information (PII)
Information that could identify an individual person, such as a student's name and date of birth.
Plan and Manage Testing Report
A report available in TIDE that details all of a student’s test opportunities and the status of those test opportunities.
Portal
A website that provides access to the materials, resources, and systems required for the implementation of the Washington Comprehensive Assessment Program (WCAP).
PreID Label
A label affixed to a student’s physical testing materials, such as a paper answer booklet.
PreID Roster
A type of roster that is implicitly created based on the class codes assigned to students in TIDE. When a student's class code is edited, their PreID roster membership is automatically changed as well.
Print Request
A TA Site feature in which students with the appropriate test settings may request printouts of test content, which the test administrator may approve.
Prompt
The component of an item that provides students with the instructions or question they must respond to.

R

Rater
The user role in THSS allows educators to hand-score student responses to interim constructed response items.
Refreshable Braille Display (RBD)
An assistive technology device for visually-impaired students that translates text to a readable braille format.
Re-open a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE reopens a test segment that a student already submitted. This is available only if the student has not yet started a new test segment.
Re-open Previous Test Segment Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a previous test segment.
Reporting Category
A Claim or Reporting Area score that represents student performance on a specific set of skills and knowledge. The Reporting Category results are provided in addition to a student's overall test performance.
Request to View (RTV)
Definition needed
Reset a Test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that allows the student to restart a test opportunity (removing all responses on the test), or allows the data entry operator to restart the data entry process.
Revert a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reverses a test reset, restoring the student responses that were on the test when the reset was processed.
Revised Code of Washington (RCW)
The compilation of all permanent laws now in force, arranged by topic, with amendments added and repealed laws removed.
Roster
A group of students associated with an educator in TIDE. Rosters typically represent classes, but may also represent other student groups.
Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.

S

School Coordinator (SC)
User role representing a test coordinator for an individual school.
Screen Reader
An application that transforms the text displayed on a computer screen into synthesized speech for vision-impaired users.
Screensaver Mode
A feature in the TA Site that allows test administrators to temporarily hide any sensitive student data that appears on screen.
Section 504
Of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is a federal law that protects the rights of individuals with disabilities in programs and activities that receive Federal financial assistance. Section 504 regulations require public school districts that receive Federal financial assistance to provide a “Free Appropriate Public Education” (FAPE) to each qualified student with a disability within the district’s jurisdiction, regardless of the nature or severity of a student’s disability. FAPE consists of the provision of regular or special education and related aids and services designed to meet the student’s individual educational needs as adequately as the needs of non-disabled students are met.
Section 504 Plan
A student with a 504 plan qualifies a student with a disability under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. A section 504 plan describes any services or accommodations that a school will provide to alleviate the impact of a student’s disability on his or her education. A student eligible under Section 504 may or may not meet the eligibility criteria for special education under the IDEA if the student can be accommodated without the need for specially designed instruction. A 504 plan is not an Individualized Education Program (IEP) as is required for students in special education.
Secure Browser (SB)
The browser through which all operational tests are administered. The Secure Browser provides a secure and user-friendly environment for students to complete tests while preventing access to any prohibited tools or applications.
Secure Inbox (Inbox)
The secure inbox shared across multiple CAI systems. It stores files that were exported from those systems.
Secure Item Response Viewing Environment (SIRVE)
The system allows authorized users to view a student's responses in their completed test opportunities.
Short Answer (SA)
A question type that requires students to respond by typing a short response in a text box.
Significant Cognitive Disabilities
A student eligible for and receiving special education services who has a significant cognitive challenge and requires intensive, highly individualized, specially designed instruction and who by reason of their disability, require multiple opportunities to acquire and generalize knowledge and skills.
Simulation (SIM)
A question type that requires students to set the parameters of an interactive animation to populate information in a table.
Single Sign-On (SSO)
A shared component in CAI systems that allows users to use a single set of login credentials to access every CAI system and external systems like Tools for Teachers and Smarter Reporting System.
State Administrator
Specially designed instruction, at no cost to parents, to meet the unique needs of a student eligible for special education, including instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other settings. A student receiving special education services is an eligible student who has been identified through a comprehensive evaluation as having a disability which adversely affects the educational performance of said student, therefore resulting in the student needing specially designed instruction.
Stem
The question or prompt in a test item to which the students must respond.
Stimulus
A reading passage or information section in a test that students must review in order to respond to a set of associated items.
Student Data File
A spreadsheet file that lists comprehensive test result data for a custom combination of tests and students, which users can generate and export in the Reporting system.

T

Teacher Hand Scoring System (THSS)
The system allows users to manually enter scores for students' responses to interim items that cannot be scored automatically.
Technology-Enhanced Items (TEIs)
Category of test items that use the computer-based environment to present interactions and elicit responses in ways that may not be possible on a paper-based test.
Test Administration Certification Course (TA Certification Course)
A certification course offered to potential test administrators in order to prepare them for online test administration. The certification course is recommended but the district can determine locally if they will require it as part of the annual training process.
Test Administration Site (TA Site)
A component of CAI's Test Delivery System used by test administrators to proctor online test sessions. Both practice and operational TA Sites exist. Also known as the TA Interface.
Test Administrator (TA)
A user role for an educator who may administer test sessions in TDS.
Test Completion Rate Report
A report available in TIDE that summarizes the number and percentage of students who have started or completed a test.
Test Delivery System (TDS)
The systems used by Test Administrators to administer online tests, and used by students to complete online tests. TDS includes the TA Site, the Student Secure Browser, and the Assessment Viewing Application.
Test Incident Report
Document of record for a district to record testing incidents.
Test Information and Distribution Engine (TIDE)
The registration system used for the WCAP assessments, allows educators to manage user and student information. It is responsible for student registration, gathering of demographic data, and materials ordering.
Test Label
The name of an assessment as displayed in CAI systems.
Test Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Test Presentation
The language in which a test is displayed to the student.
Test Segment
A section of a test. Tests may be divided into multiple segments based on the skills measured, types of tasks, and/or tools avaialble in that section.
Test Session
An event created by test administrators in the TA Interface in which they select one or more tests and approve students to take those tests in the Student Secure Browser.
Test Status Code Report
A report is available in TIDE that displays all the non-participation codes for a test administration.
Test Ticket
A piece of paper that includes a student’s username for logging in to a test in TDS.
Test Timeout
When a student's test pauses automatically after a certain period of inactivity.
Test Window
The date range in which a particular test is available for administration to eligible students.
Testing Breach
A high-risk breach is any test administration event that poses a threat to the validity of the test and requires immediate attention. These circumstances have external implications for the state and consortium and may result in a decision to remove the test questions(s) from the available secure item bank. Examples: Test content left unsecured, test content or student responses being reviewed, retained, or shared with other persons or in social media, adults modifying student answers.
Testing Impropriety
An unusual circumstance that has a low impact on the individual or group of students and has a very low risk of potentially affecting student performance, test validity, or score reliability. Examples: Fire drill during testing, cell phone rings from secured location, student misconduct distracting the test session.
Testing Irregularity
An unusual circumstance that impacts an individual or group of students who are testing and may potentially affect student performance, test validity, or score reliability. Examples: Technology incident occurs, student accessed non-approved material or electronic device, student was not provided accessibility feature as outlined in the plan, student was provided accessibility feature not identified in the plan, student left unattended during a test session, TA assistance outside administration protocols, student tested under another students login.
Tutorial
A tool within the Student Secure Browser that plays a video demonstrating how students interact with a particular item type.

U

Uncontracted Braille
A version of Braille that uses cells of dots to represent individual letters, numbers, and symbols.

V

Voice Pack (VP)
A software tool for emulating speech. Voice packs must be present in testing devices for any students who will use text-to-speech (TTS).

W

Washington Administrative Code (WAC)
Administrative rules and regulations by which state agencies operate to execute the laws enacted by the Legislature.
Washington Comprehensive Assessment of Science (WCAS)
Science assessment that measures the level of proficiency that Washington students have achieved based on the Washington State 2013 K-12 Science Learning Standards, which are the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).
Washington Comprehensive Assessment Program (WCAP)
The state assessment program.
Writing Extended Response (WER)
An item type that requires students to respond by typing a long answer in a text box.